Treasure is not always about gold and money; it is not even about materialistic stuff at all. Treasure can lie in the most intangible things; ones that possess a great value. To get straight to the point, everything that shapes cultures is an actual gem that requires discovery. Enchantingly, the Irish culture managed to discern its own value. Not only did that happen through its unique customs, but also through the most unrealistic legends. Mythology has always played a role in shaping a country’s culture. Lots of things, despite its irrationality sometimes, were the reasons for some customs to come to life. In the magnificent marvel of Ireland lies a bunch of interesting tales. Those tales embrace a group of mystical races from which the Irish, supposedly, descended. While there is a plenty of those magical races, the Tuatha de Danann remains on top.
There is a whole different world that you can learn about when it comes to the Irish mythology. It is a parallel world of mystical phenomena and supernatural god-like creatures. In this article, you’ll come to know everything you need about the Tuatha de Danann.
A BRIEF ABOUT THE IRISH MYTHOLOGY
The Irish mythology is a vast world of legends and tales. All of them had existed in the pre-Christian period and, according to some sources, they ceased to survive right after that. Conversely, these tales are still descending to generations; one after another, but without the immersion of new ones. In fact, the Irish mythology, in spite of being interesting, can be very confusing sometimes. Thus, historians have divided it into cycles. Particularly, they are four main cycles and each one of them serves a certain period and theme. In other words, the cycles’ main purpose is to embrace a bunch of legends and tales according to their era. Besides, each cycle main has a certain world to evoke. These worlds could be ones of heroes and warriors or those of kings’ battles and history.
These four cycles are the Mythology Cycle, the Kings’ Cycle, the Ulster Cycle, and, finally, the Fenian Cycle. We will introduce you to the fine points of each cycle shortly. The point of learning all about the Irish mythology is to ease the process of identifying its tales, gods, and races. There is a lot to know about the mythical races of Ireland, especially the Tuatha de Danann. They were the spiritual race of Ireland and the most ancient of all of them.
The Cycles of the Irish Mythology
What is the purpose of these cycles? In the past, researchers and mythology professors realized that the analysis of the Irish legends was hectic and chaotic. The mythology is actually too broad and hard to cram. Thus, they decided to figure out a method that would make things easier for them. As a consequence, the cycles were brought into being. They divided the tales and legends in accordance with their eras and specified each of them into the four cycles. Most of the cycles embrace tales about the Tuatha de Danann. On the other hand, the Fenian cycle was concerned more with the Fianna rather than the Tuatha de Danann.
The Mythological Cycle
The cycle’s name may actually make it obvious in stating what it is all about. Yes, it is mainly about myths and unrealistic legends. On the other hand, it certainly makes up most of the Irish legends. You may as well find that this cycle embraces the most tales and legends among the other cycles. Briefly, the world that this cycle evokes is one that revolves around gods and mystical races. It is a major cycle that includes most of the legends that involved races like the Tuatha de Danann.
The era of this cycle was that time when Ireland was still unaware of the existence of Christianity. It revolves around gods that people of ancient Ireland used to believe in. Most of the tales embraced in the mythological cycles were ones that included the Tuatha de Danann. They were also stories that people kept orally spreading them to the younger generations. Those tales include the Children of Lir, Wooing of Etain, and The Dream of Aengus.
The Kings’ Cycle or the Historical Cycle
This cycle holds two names; the Kings’ cycle and the Historical Cycle. Most of the tales that fall into this category belonged to the medieval period. They were mostly about kings, bards, and the most significant battles in history.
Who are the Bards? Bards were Irish poets who existed during the medieval period. They lived in the households of kings and queens, serving them and their families. Besides, they were ones that played a magnificent role in recording history. Some historians believe that if it wasn’t for those bards, the Kings’ cycle would not have existed. They also refer to them as court poets, sometimes. Bards were actually the ones who reported history and made it easy for younger generations to learn about.
This cycle clasps a bunch of stories that are deemed to be quite popular. Those tales include The Frenzy of Sweeney and other tales of the High Kings, as Labraid Loingsech and Brian Boru.
The Ulster Cycle
There were two major cities in Ireland; eastern Ulster and northern Leinster. Both of them were referred to as Ulaid. The Ulster cycle is actually one that holds more than a few tales that revolve around the heroes of Ulaid. Sources claim that some of the legends of this cycle existed in the Medieval period. On the other hand, other tales belonged to the Early Christianity period. The most significant tales of this cycle are Cattle Raid of Cooley and Deirdre of the Sorrows.
The Fenian Cycle
Folklorist and historians refer to this cycle with three different names. It’s called either the Fenian cycle, Finn Cycle, or the Finnian tales, but the Fenian cycle is the most one. The Fenian cycle shares a lot of similarities with the Ulster cycle, so there has been a confusion between both of them. This cycle, in particular, rotates around legends of warriors and heroes that existed in ancient Ireland. However, there is also romance involved in the tales of this cycle, making it different from the Ulster one. The Fenian cycle reveals a brand new part of the history of Ireland. It is concerned with warriors and heroes rather than gods. In that era, people regarded warriors as divine figures and worshipped them.
THE SUPERNATURAL RACES OF THE IRISH MYTHOLOGY
Again, the Irish mythology is a deep ocean of marvelous tales. It feels like the tales of this mythology are endless; ones that keep generating other more tales. With that ceaseless generating, it is easy to expect that the characters are plentiful as well. It is true after all. In fact, the significant characters of the mythology descend from reputable races of Ireland. They all have origins that assisted in creating the long history of ancient Ireland. The Tuatha de Danann had always taken over. There were a plenty of other supernatural races, including the Gaels, the Fomorians, and the Milesians. However, the Tuatha de Danann was the race that evoked most of the gods and goddesses were worshipped.
Who was the Tuatha de Danann?
In ancient Ireland, there were more than a few races that existed. Among them was the Tuatha de Danann. The Tuatha de Danann was a magical race that possessed supernatural powers. Most of them were god-like creatures or divine beings that were being worshipped. This race was also known to believe in Goddess Danu. She was sometimes referred to as the mother. The Tuatha de Danann settled in four major cities; Falias, Gorias, Finias, and Murias.
The Tuatha de Danann brought fascinating skills and wisdom to Ireland when they arrived there. They gained those skills from four wise men who resided in the four cities; one in each. Senias was the wise man who resided in Murias; Morias in Falias; Urias in Gorias; and Arias in Finias. Over and beyond, the Tuatha de Danann brought four treasures from the four cities; treasures that were beneficial to Ireland. Later, we will discuss the four treasures in details shortly.
The Mysterious Origin of the Tuatha de Danann
It remains ambiguous how the Tuatha de Danann arrived in Ireland. Some sources claim that those people arrived through flying in the air and landing there. While traveling in the air, they were in the form of mist or fog. Other sources claim they arrived on dark clouds. The latter escorted people to believe they came from heaven rather than from earth. Surprisingly, some people professed that that race was actually aliens. The only rational opinion regarding how they reached Ireland was through ships and reached the shores of Ireland. One more claim was mixing between two of the claims. It states that the smoke or that fog in the air was actually the evidence where their ships burned.
Seemingly, opinions regarding the origin do not cease, making things more shadowy and shrouded in mystery. Sources have it that the Tuatha de Danann come from the north while others claim they come from the west. There was even a whole different theory that claimed they came from Denmark. Traditions were the reason that this theory showed up. Those traditions admitted that the Tuatha de Dannan lived in Lochlonn; a place that has been related to Denmark. And before Denmark, they stayed in Achaia which was suspected to be their real country. After Denmark, they moved to the northern side of Scotland for seven years. They stayed in Lardahar and Dobhar and particular before moving to Ireland.
More Claims about their Origin
Because there are always many sources, it is hard to believe which one claims the truth. Conversely, they all keep on going. Some people claim that their origin goes back to Atlantis; however, they had to leave, for the city disappearance. Others say they stayed in a region that exists in Austria around the Danube River.
In ancient Greece, there were texts that suspect it was meant for the Tuatha de Dannan. The text included the following “..in ancient Greece… there lived a race of nomads known as the Pelasgians. Tribal in nature, they were seafarers who claimed to be born from the teeth of the Comic Snake Ophion, and the Great Goddess Danu.” It reveals that the Tuatha de Danann came from Greece. They tried to destroy the rulers of Greece, the Pelasgians, at that time and take over, but their attempts failed. They then had to leave for Denmark before heading to Ireland.
Etymology of the Name
Most of the Irish names are rarely pronounced as written. Thus, the pronunciation of the Tuatha de Danann is actually “Thoo a Du-non.” Apparently, that was how they said their name. The literal meaning of this name is “the Tribes of the God.” It makes sense since they were popular of being a spiritual and religious race; they believed in gods and goddesses. Above and beyond, some sources claim that the actual meaning of the name is “the tribe of Danu.” Danu was a goddess that existed in ancient Ireland; some people also referred to her as mother.
Significant Members of the Race
Definitely, each race had its own leader and king. Nuada was the king of the Tuatha de Dannan. Over and beyond, there were also chiefs where each of them had a task to handle. They all played significant roles among their folks. Those chiefs included Credenus; the one who responsible for crafting; Neit, the god of battles; and Diancecht was the healer. There were actually more than that. Goibniu was the Smith; Badb, the goddess of battles; Morrigu was the Crow of Battle, and Macha was the nourisher. Lastly, there was Ogma; he was Nuada’s brother and he was responsible for teaching writing.
The Story of the Tuatha de Danann
Tuatha de Danann was a magical race with supernatural powers. They represented ancient Ireland, for they were the folks who lived in Pre-Christian Ireland for centuries. Before their unexplained disappearance, they stayed in Ireland for around four thousand years. There have been more than a few claims regarding their disappearance; however, the truth remains unraveled.
Fighting Against the Firbolgs
When they first snaked into Ireland, the Firbolgs were the rulers by that time. The march of the Tuatha de Danann surprised them, escorting to a failure in resisting them. Both races fought over the rule of Ireland. Legends have it that their first battle took place near the Shore of Lough Corrib on the Plain of Moyturey. Eventually, victory was on the side of Tuatha de Danann; they won the battle and took over Ireland. The latter happened after defeating and slaughtering the Firbolgs. Their king died in the battle and they had to choose another leader. Eventually, the choice fell on Srang; he was the new leader of the Firbolgs.
While some sources claim the overthrowing of the Firbolgs, others seem to have a different opinion. The History of Ireland, Ancient and Modern was a book that had a manuscript that states a distinct version of the events. It states that the battle did not end with the defeat of the Firbolgs; however, both races agreed to compromise. They both decided to split Ireland between them; however, the Tuatha de Danann shall have the greater portion. As a result, the Firbolgs only took Connaught while the rest was accounted to the Tuath.
Nuada had to Step Aside
Nuada was the king of the Tuatha de Danann. Some sources wrote his name as such “Nuadhat.” However, in their battle against the Firbolgs, he had lost an arm. There was a law that stated that whoever takes over as the king had to be in a perfect shape. Since Nuada was no longer in that shape, the kingship was given to Breas, but it was temporary though. After seven years, Nuada took back the kingship. Credne Cerd was an Irish man who succeeded in giving Nuada a silver hand, so he became whole again. Miach, the son of Diencecht, was the physician who aided in fitting the hand. For that reason, the mythology sometimes refers to Nuada as Nuadhat the Silver Hand.
That whole process took them seven years to be as perfect as possible. It was an evidence of the exceptional skills that this race possessed and brought to Ireland along with them.
The Fomorians: A Ceaseless Wheel of War and Peace
During the seven years of achieving the perfect arm of Nuada, Breas was the temporary king. However, he wasn’t purely from Tuatha de Danann; his mother belonged to that race, but his father was a Fomorian. Probably, his mother’s origin was the reason he made it to the kingship. Anyhow, after the seven years were over, Nuada had to pick up where he left off. He retook the kingship; however, things were no longer as peaceful as they were. Breas seemed to be bitter about having to leave the chair. Thus, he initiated a war with the Fomorians against the Tuatha de Danann. There were also still refugees of the Firbolg around the area; they supported the war since they were their enemies.
Balor was the leader of the Fomorians. He was giant and incredibly strong. Also, the Irish traditions claimed that he had only one eye; however, that did not affect his strength. In that battle, Balor succeeded in killing Nuada, the king of the Tuatha de Danann. However, he did receive victory, for he died as well. Lugh Lamhfhada was the champion of the Tuatha de Danann; he managed to avenge Nuada’s death by killing Balor.
The Interrelation between both Races
Superficially, there were several members who were half-Fomorians and Half-Tuatha de Danann. Both races happened to have the same ancestor. They were both descendants of the god of Battles, Neit. Lugh Lamhfhada, like Breas, was a result of intermarriage between the two races. Surprisingly, he happened to be the grandson of Balor, leader of the Fomorians. Well, this may sound a bit odd, but here’ the whole story:
In an Irish legend, Balor had been informed by a foretelling that his own grandson was going to kill him. Balor only had one daughter, Ethniu; he decided to lock her in a glass tower. It was a place that would ensure her being unable to meet a man, so she’d never get pregnant. On the contrary, Balor’s strategic plans did not go accordingly. His plans started to fall off the trail when he stole a magical cow from Cian. The latter happened to know about Balor’s daughter, so he broke into the tower in order to take revenge. Having met Ethniu, Balor’s daughter, he seduced her, escorting her to be pregnant with three children. When she gave birth to them, Balor knew about the incident, thus, he ordered his servants to drown them.
Fate had a different plan where two of the children drowned, but one managed to remain alive. That one child was saved by a druidess who took him to Ireland. The child happened to be Lugh; he lived among the Tuatha de Danann all the way through adulthood.
The Reign of Lugh
After Lugh avenged for the death of Nuada by killing his own grandfather, Balor, he became the king. He had shown great courage and wisdom. Since he was half-Fomorian, he was also responsible for spreading peace between the two races. His reign stayed for almost forty years. During that period, he managed to establish what was known as the public fair. Those games took place on the hill of Tailltean. They were a mean of honoring Taillte, Lugh’s foster-mother. They remained around until the 12th century. The place is no longer working, but it’s still there and people nowadays refer to it as Lugh’s fair.
The Sway of the Milesians
The Milesians was another race that existed in ancient Ireland. Legends refer to them as the Sons of Mil. In the ancient times, when the Tuatha won the battle and took over, they had a deal with the Milesians. They kicked them out, but they said if they managed to land again in Ireland, the country shall be theirs. That was according to the rules of war. Just then, the Milesians withdrew and went back to the sea. Then, the Tuatha raised a great storm to dash their ships and ensure their loss, so they wouldn’t come back. After that, they kept Ireland invisible.
In 1700 B.C, the Milesians arrived in Ireland to realize that the Tuatha de Danann was entirely taking over. Things had taken a twist when, in fact, the Tuatha de Danann managed to keep Ireland undetectable to the Milesians. However, they managed to find the land and marched into there. Definitely, the Tuatha were not prepared for resisting the Milesians; they didn’t expect them to find the land that easily.
The Defeat of the Tuatha de Danann
As soon as the Milesians arrived in Ireland, it wasn’t so long before the Tuatha de Danann disappeared for good. Regarding their disappearance, there had been several claims. But, in all cases, they were certainly defeated. One of the theories states that the Tuatha de Danann did not fight the Milesians at all. That was because their foretelling skills suggested that they were going to lose the country anyway. Instead, they built their own kingdoms under several hills around Ireland. It’s said that they built them long before the arrival of the Milesians. This theory suggests that the Tuatha de Danann were what was referred to as the fairy folk of Ireland. The latter was because they lived underground for good.
The other theory has another suggestion to offer. It claims that the two races entered a battle in which the Milesians won. They took over Ireland and had most of the races around Ireland as their allies. What happened to the Tuatha de Danann after the defeat was divided into two different opinions. Some say that their Goddess Da
nu sent them to live in Tir na nOg, the Land of the Young. On the other hand, others claim the Milesians came to terms with sharing the land with the Tuatha de Danann. However, the latter had taken the underground part as their own land.
The Theory of “The Cave Fairies”
This theory is pretty similar to the previous one. It states that the Milesians did not defeat the Tuatha de Danann at all. Instead, they decided to keep them living side by side with them. The reason behind their claimed decision was the fact the Tuatha captivated them by their exclusive skills. As we previously mentioned, the Tuatha de Danann arrived in Ireland with fascinating incomparable skills. They also had great skills in magic and arts, including music, poetry, and architecture. For that reason, the Milesians wanted to keep them living around in order to take advantage of their skills.
One more thing, the Tuatha de Danann owned horses that all history professed could never be found anywhere else. Those horses had large eyes, broad chests, and were as speed as the wind. They exerted flame and fire and they resided in a place called “ the Great Caves of the Hills.” Owning those horses escorted people to refer to the Tuatha de Danann as the Cave Fairies.
People of the Sidhe
The Irish mythology would usually mention a race name the Sidhe, pronounced as Shee. Historians believe that the Sidhe is another reference to the Tuatha de Danann. The latter was regarded as gods of the earth. There was also a belief that they had the ability to control the crops ripening and the cows’ milk production. Thus, people in ancient Ireland worshipped them with sacrifices to have their blessings in return. When the Milesians first arrived in Ireland, they faced that trouble of rotten crops and unproductive cows. They blamed the Tuatha de Danann for that incident, thinking that they were avenging for their stolen lands.
THE FOUR TREASURES OF THE TUATHA DE DANANN
Briefly, as we stated before, the Tuatha de Danann’s origin seems to be mysterious. However, the only part that the mythology professed was that they came from four different cities. Those cities were Gorias, Murias, Falias, and Findias. They were a supernatural race who held marvelous powers and skills. From each city, they had learned valuable skills from four wise men. Above and beyond, they obtained valuable items as well. The mythology refers to those items as the four treasures of the Tuatha de Danann. Some sources even call them the Four Jewels of the Tuatha de Danann. Each one belonged to a significant character and had a prominent function. Some people also refer to them as the Four Jewels of the Tuatha de Danann. Here are the four treasures and details about each one of them:
Lugh was half-Fomorian and half-Tuath de Danann. He was the champion of the Tuatha de Danann who killed his own grandfather, Balor. Lugh owned spears that were used in battles. Whoever used them never failed in a battle. Legends have it that this spear was the weapon Lugh used while killing Balor. He threw the spear into Balor’s poison eyes right before taking him down. Some versions of the story state that Lugh used stones or slings. However, the spear seems to be the most reasonable weapon to use. In fact, Lugh owned more than a few spears; he had a fine collection of them. However, a specific one of them was the most famous and it had certain specifications as well.
This most famous one is referred to as Lugh’s spear. Sources claim that it was brought to Ireland from the city of Falias. The latter was one of the four cities that the Tuatha de Danann came from. The spear’s head was made from dark bronze and it was sharply pointed at its finest. It looked fearful as well. Attached to it was a rowan that had thirty gold pins. Most importantly, the spear possessed magical abilities as well. Another spear that Lugh possessed was The Slaughterer. In Irish, its name is Areadbhar. According to the Irish mythology, that spear would burst into flame all on its own. So, its user had to keep it in cold water; that way the water would put down the flame.
Lugh’s spear disappeared somewhere along the way. Later, a hero among those of the Ulster Cycle found it once again. His name was Celtchair mac Uthechar and he was a champion of the Red Branch Knights. When Celtchair found Lugh’s spear, its name became Luin Celtchair instead. It was like the possession transferred from Lugh to Celtchair. Despite the transfer, it belonged to the Tuatha de Danann. However, the spear seemed to be Celtchair’s own enemy. According to traditions, he once killed a hound with that spear. The hound’s blood was poisoned and it stained the spear. While holding the spear, a drop of this blood fell down and got into Celtchair’s own skin. It sent him to death right away.
Oengus of the Dread Spear
Apparently, Lugh’s spear appeared in more than a few stories. Conversely, it possessed different names other than the spear of Lugh. There was a story that belongs to the King Cycle. It revolves around four brothers who led Clan Deisi. Those brothers were Oengus, Brecc, Forad, and Eochaid. Forad has a daughter named Forach. Their enemy, Cellach, kidnapped and raped her. He was Cormac mac Airt disobedient son. The four brothers negotiated with him to give up the girl and let go; however, he refused to do so. His refusal resulted in a battle where Oengus had a small army and attacked the residence of the High King. In spite of the army’s small number, Oengus managed to kill Cellach. The dread spear was the weapon he used in murdering him.
Oengus had accidentally hurt the eye of Cormac while throwing the spear. According to the law of war, the king had to be in a perfect physical state. Thus, Cormac had to renounce his position and hand it over to his other son, Cairpre Lifechair.
The Sword of Light
Here’s the second treasure of the Tuatha de Danann. It was a sword that belonged to Nuada, the first king of the race. It came from Finias city. The sword had actually made an appearance in a plenty of the Irish folktales. It took part in those of the Scottish culture as well. There were several names to it; Shining sword, White Glaive of Light, and Sword of Light. The Irish equivalent to its name is Claíomh Solais or Claidheamh Soluis. There were many tales that featured the sword. Those which did feature it obliged the keeper of the sword to execute three sets of tasks. He shall also be a hag or an undefeatable giant. However, he shouldn’t do the tasks all by himself; he needed to have some helpers. Those helpers are usually animals with skills, a supernatural being, and a female servant.
The sword makes the keeper insuperable and impossible to defeat. If someone ever beat the hero, then that was through secret means. It was one more item that ensured the strength of the Tuatha de Danann. Despite the strength of the sword, it was never enough in beating an enemy. That was the enemy was usually a supernatural being, so the hero had to attack him on defenseless body’s spot. As we previously stated, it could be a specific part of his body. Conversely, it could sometimes be in the form of an external soul. The soul could possess the body of an animal.
Stone of Fal or Lia Fail
This stone is present at the Hill of Tara, at the Inauguration Mound in particular. It is the third treasure of the Tuatha de Danann that comes from Falias city. The literal meaning of Lia Fail is the Stone of Destiny. Some people claim that the meaning is actually the Speaking Stone. The High Kings of Ireland had actually used it as the coronation stone. Thus, some refer to it as the Coronation Stone of Tara. It was the place where every king of Ireland had gotten crowned. However, the origin of how that stone arrived in Ireland seems mysterious. There are several legends about that fact.
The Lia Fail was a magical stone that roared with joy when the High King put his feet on it. It exists during the reign of the Tuatha de Danann since it was one of their treasures. Besides, it lasted for some time even after the Tuatha de Danann. More things the stone was capable of was awarding the king with a long reign as well as reviving him. Unfortunately, the stone lost its abilities at some point along the way. Cuchulainn wanted it to roar under his feet, but it did not. Thus, he had to use his sword to split it into two pieces and it never roared again. Surprisingly, it only did under the feet of under Conn of the Hundred Battles.
The Scottish Dispute
The Hill of Tara consists of several standing stones; ones that sit around the Lia Fail. There is a theory that may be surprising for some people, but some sources profess its authenticity. The theory states that the original Lia Fail that the Tuatha de Danann brought is no longer around. Some sources state that the Irish people are keeping it hidden and safe. They say they will keep it away until the reign of the High Kings is back once again. On the other hand, the theory of the unoriginal stone has a different opinion; a Scottish one though. The theory says that someone stole the original Lia Fail and brought it to Scotland. It is now the Stone of Scone that is present in Scotland. People there using for crowning the Scottish royals.
Cauldron of the Dagda
Here comes the fourth treasure that came to Ireland all the way from the northern city of Muirias. The one who had brought it was Semias; a skillful druid who taught the Tuatha de Danann some magical skills. Regarding the cauldron, like all of its fellows, it was magical. The keeper of that cauldron was Dagda; the father god and one of Ireland’s High Kings. We will get to details about the father god later. Sources claim that the power of this cauldron is very potent; it could do amazing good to the world. On the other hand, it could be a great misery if it happens to get into the wrong hands.
The Power of the Cauldron
The cauldron was a symbol of generosity as well as bounteousness. It was large in size and its function was ceaselessly providing food to the gods. In the Irish mythology, there were texts that state “from which all leave satisfied.” The generosity and constant providence of the cauldron was obvious for everyone in ancient Ireland. In fact, people at that time referred to the cauldron as Coire Unsic. The literal meaning of this name is “The Undry” in English. That’s because it never ran out of food to provide to everyone; in fact, it was overflowing with food. Above and beyond, food was not the only power that the cauldron possessed. It could also revive the dead and heal the wounds of the injured.
Where the original cauldron is has been a matter of debate. Some people claim that it was buried with the mounds, so it’s safe from the curiosity of the earthly beings.
THE MOST PROMINENT GODS OF IRELAND
Ireland in the ancient times is known to have worshipped more than a few gods and goddesses. Those gods come from different races. Besides, there were lots of them who actually descended from the Tuatha de Danann. In this section, you’ll get to know the Irish gods and goddesses that were members of the Tuatha de Danann. The latter was a very spiritual race that believed in the power of gods and magic. They also possessed powers that were beyond the abilities of the human beings. For that reason, the Irish mythology sometimes refers to them as god-like creatures rather than humans. Before, we have mentioned that the name Tuatha de Danann means the Tribe of the Goddess Danu. Thus, we are going to start with this Goddess and more Celtic gods and goddesses will follow.
Danu was an imaginary mother goddess of the Tuatha de Danann. That is why their name means the People of Danu. She is one of the very ancient goddesses in the history of Ireland. Her modern Irish name is usually Dana rather than Danu. People usually refer to her by the Goddess of Earth or the Goddess of Land. Her main duty was pouring her power and wisdom about the lands to bring prosperity. Danu possessed a lot of fascinating skills. The mythology states that she passed most of her skill to the Tuatha de Danann. As a consequence, most of the members of this race are either divine figures or supernatural beings.
Another name that people refer to the oldest ancient Celtic goddess with is the beantuathach. This name means the farmer; they call her that, for she was the goddess of the land. Not only did she nourish the lands of Ireland, but she was also associated with the rivers.
The Most Significant Folk Tales of Goddess Danu
Danu is one of the prominent gods of Ireland that the Celtic mythology has always mentioned. Her appearance remains mysterious that some researchers claim her to be imaginary. On the other hand, several stories and tales have had references to her. Those references helped in shaping a character to Goddess Danu, regardless of the authenticity of her existence. Definitely, all the stories she appeared in were ones that included the Tuatha de Danann, her own people. Remember how the Tuatha de Danann arrived in Ireland? Well, mythology claims that they were back in a magical mist after being kicked out. Some sources profess that the mist was actually Goddess Danu embracing her own people and returning them back home.
Goddess Danu was a symbol of magic, poetry, craftsmanship, wisdom, and music. Thus, the Tuatha de Danann was good at all of those aspects because of her impact on them. She also nurtured her people by taking them from weakness to strength. She used her magic and wisdom in influencing her people positively. Danu was like a hypothetical mother for the Tuatha de Danann; consequently, they called her mother sometimes. She had all the aspects of a loving and caring mother who keeps fostering her children. On the other hand, some stories have revealed that part of Goddess Danu where she was a warrior as well. She was the perfect combination of a warrior and a thoughtful, compassionate mother who would never give up or surrender.
The Birth of the Dagda
The one story that the Goddess played an actual role was one with Bile. Bile is the god of healing and light. He appeared in the story in the form of an oak tree; a sacred one. Danu was the one who was responsible for feeding that tree and nurturing it. Their relationship was the reason for the Dagda to be born.
THE DAGDA: THE GOOD GOD
The literal meaning of an Dagda is good god. He was one of the most important gods of the Celtic legends. As the ancient Irish perceived Goddess Danu as a mother, they regarded Dagda as a father. On the other hand, legends have it that Goddess Danu was the mother of God Dagda. It makes more sense to regard them as husband and wife. Legends claim that they were the ones who started the Tuatha de Danann. He was actually the symbol of agriculture, strength, and fertility. Above all, he is the symbol of magic; it is one of the most important aspects of the Tuatha de Danann. This god was the one responsible for controlling almost everything in life. Those included time, seasons, weather, life and death, and the crops as well. Regular members of the Tuatha de Danann had super powers, so imagine how powerful gods were.
The Dagda was a prevailing deity figure who possessed more than a few powers; he also owned magical items. One of those items was the Cauldron of the Dagda; it was among the four treasures of the Tuatha de Danann. We have previously mentioned that cauldron. It never ceased to provide food to the gods. The Dagda also owned a countless number of fruit trees that were constantly productive. Besides, he had two pigs that were prominent in some tales of Celtic mythology. He was the god of wisdom who had the power to control life, death, and weather.
The Depiction of the Dagda in the Mythology
Seemingly, all the gods of the Tuatha de Danann were strong and giant. The portrayal of the Dagda often included an enormous man. He usually wore a cloak that had a hood. On the other hand, some sources contained a depiction of this god in a sarcastic yet comical way. He was wearing a short tunic that did not even cover his private parts. It seemed to be intentional to make him seem unsophisticated and crude; an image that a god shouldn’t be on.
The Story of the Dagda
He was once a leader of the Tuatha de Danann; probably, the second one. The Dagda ruled Ireland right after Nuada, the first leader of the race. Folktales claim that he had mated with several goddesses throughout his life. That’s why he had so many children. However, his real love was Boann. Aengus’s one of his sons; he’s among the gods of Ireland that belonged to the same race of his father’s. However, he was a result of an affair. His mother was Boann, the wife of Elcmar. Dagda had an affair with her and then learned she was pregnant. In fear of getting caught, Dagda made the sun stand still throughout his lover’s pregnancy. After that duration, Boann gave birth to their son, Aengus and things went back to normal. Seemingly, the list of the Dagda’s children goes on. It includes Brigit, Bodb Dearg, Cermait, Aine, and Midir.
The Dagda was a very generous father. He shared his own possessions with his children, especially his land. However, his son Aengus was usually away. When he came back, he realized that his father hadn’t left anything for him, unlike his own siblings. Aengus was disappointed with that; however, he managed to trick his father and take his own home. He asked him if he could live in the Brú na Bóinne, where the Dagda lived, for, sometime. Conversely, he took possession of the place for good and betrayed his father.
AENGUS: THE GOD OF LOVE & YOUTH
Aengus was a member of the Tuatha de Danann. He was the son of the Dagda and Boann, the goddess of the river. Mythology had depicted him as the god of love and youth. However, some tales claim otherwise, for his father refused to give him possessions; he only gave them to the gods. This statement shows that Aengus was probably not a god. According to some sources, his portrayal usually included birds that fly above his head in circles. Aengus, despite being the god of love, seemed to be a bit ruthless. He committed several murders against more than a few people in many folktales.
Aengus may have been the son of the Dagda; however, Midir was his foster father. Some legends also claim that Aengus was able of reviving people as much as he was in killing them. He even brought his own foster son back to life after he died. Aengus owned four lethal weapons; two swords and two spears. They all had names as well. His swords’ names were Beagalltach, which means the Little Fury and Moralltach, which means the Great Fury. The latter was a gift that Manannan mac Lir gave it to him. Later, Aengus gave it to his son, Diarmuid Ua Duibhne, before his death. On the other hand, the two spears were named Gáe Buide and Gáe Derg.
The Killing Tales of Aengus
Aengus had killed quite a few people for different reasons. He killed the poet of Lugh Lámhfhada because he lied to him. The poet claimed that Ogma an Cermait, Dagda’s brother, had one of his wives having an affair. As soon as Aengus learned that it was a lie, he slew the poet. The other person that Aengus killed was his own stepfather. Again, Aengus was a result of an affair between Boann, the goddess of the river, and the Dagda. Boann was already married to Elcmar when she mated with the Dagda, so Elcmar was Aengus’s stepfather. According to the mythology, Elcmar killed Midir, the brother of Aengus and his foster father as well. Aengus decided to avenge his death, so he killed Elcmar.
The Wooing of Etain
The Wooing of Etain is a prominent story in the Irish mythology that embraced members of the Tuatha de Danann. Editors and researchers have divided the story into three different parts. Each part involves a specific tales in which Aengus is included. Following are the three subtales of the Wooing of Etain.
Part One (I)
Aengus grew up possessing the land of the Brug na Boinne that he forcefully took from his father. On a fine day, his brother Midir visits him to confess that he was blind due to boys’ ruthless play. After some time, Dian Cecht, the goddess physician, was able to heal him. Midir wanted to make up for the time he lost while blind. So, he asked Aengus to help him with that compensation. He asked for several things that included marrying the most beautiful woman in Ireland. That particular woman was the daughter of the king of the Ulaid, Ailill. Her name was Etain. Aengus insisted to do it for his brother. Aengus performed all of the needed tasks to win the woman and she became Midir’s second wife.
Etain was a goddess; she was the goddess of horse. Conversely, Midir already had a wife; Fuamnach. She was also the foster mother of Aengus and she played a vital role in this tale. Etain was the reason to erupt a volcano of jealousy inside Fuamnach. Thus, she changed her into a fly; one that mythology claims to have been beautiful. Etain was able to be a woman at night. Aengus fell in love with Etain, especially at night when she was a fine-looking woman. When Fuamnach knew about the relationship of Aengus and Etain, she sent her away. Aengus knew that his foster mother was the reason behind Etain’s disappearance. He had to kill her for her betrayal.
Part Two (II)
The second part of the story revolves around the New High King of Ireland. He was going to be Eochu Airem. However, he would not be able to be officially a king until he had a queen. So, he had to find her as soon as possible. Just like Midir’s request in part; he asked for the hands of the most beautiful woman in Ireland. Definitely, she was Etain. Eochu fell in love with her and they both got married. On the other hand, his brother Ailill also loved Etain and he got sick due to his one-sided love. For a tour around Ireland, King Eochu had to leave the Hill of Tara for some time. He had to leave Etain with his brother who was on his last legs.
Ailill then took advantage of his brother’s absence and confessed to Etain the reason for his sickness. Etain was surprised, but she wanted him to be fine, so she told him the words he wanted to hear. Despite getting better, Ailill became more greedy and he asked Etain for more. He claimed that the healing would be complete in case she met him above the house, on the hill. The reason Ailill wanted to meet her outside of his brother’s house was thinking that it would be less shameful. He didn’t want to disgrace his brother in his house, especially that he was the High King at that time.
Midir in Disguise (II)
Etain agreed to Ailill’s request and she supposedly met him for three different times. However, Midir learned about Ailill’s plans, so every time he put him to sleep and go meet her instead. Etain never realized that fact because Midir succeeded in taking the appearance of Ailill. Conversely, he confessed to her at the third time. He uncovered his true identity and asked her to go away with him. Etain was not familiar with Midir, but she agreed to go with him anyway just if Eochu let her go.
Part Three (III)
Now comes the third part of the story. This one is not a whole new story on its own; it is an extension of part two. The reason behind the researchers and editors to split that part is unclear though.
The third part rotates around the duration when Ailill received a full recovery. It was at the same time when his brother, Eochu, returned back home from his tour. Midir learned about Eochu’s return, so he had a plan in mind that would get him Etain. He went to Tara and deals with Eochu to play fidchell as a challenge. Fidchell was actually an ancient Irish board game where the loser pays up. In their challenge, Eochu kept winning and Midir’s constant loss obliged him to build the Corlea Trackway. It is a causeway across the bog of Móin Lámrige. Midir was sick of losing all the time, so he offered a new challenge where Eochu agreed. He suggested that whoever won, he would embrace and kiss Etain. However, Eochu didn’t grant Midir’s wishings; he told him to leave and come back collect his winnings after one year.
He knew that Midir would not leave that easily, so he had to prepare for his return. Later, Midir managed to get inside the house in spite of the guards that were trying to stop him. At that moment, Eochu suggested that he could only embrace Etain. While Midir was embracing her, they turned into swans and flew away together.
A Mission to Find Etain (III)
Eochu’s inner volcano erupted in rage when Midir took Etain away. He ordered his men to search in every fairy mound in Ireland and look for the whereabouts of his wife. Eochu would not settle down until his wife got back to him. After some time, Eochu’s men found Midir who gave up and promised to give Etain back to her husband. His promise was accompanied by some conditions though; it was a mental challenge for Eochu. Midir brought around fifty women who look the same, and similar to Etain, asking Eochu to select his real wife. After some confusion, Eochu went for the one who he thought to be his wife and took her home. They reignited their love life and the woman became pregnant with Eochu’s daughter. He thought that he would live in peace after taking his wife back; however, Midir reappeared to interrupt that peace.
Midir’s appearance was only to inform Eochu that he had fooled him. He confessed that the woman he had selected was not the real Etain. Instead, she was Eochu’s own daughter; she was born at Midir’s place, for Etain was already pregnant. Shame had filled Eochu and he ordered to get rid of the young daughter that resulted from their blending.
Getting Rid of the Daughter (III)
They got rid of the baby girl and a herdsman found her. He raised her up with his wife until she grew up and got married. Her husband was Eterscél, the successor of Eochu. Later, she got pregnant and became the mother of High King, Conaire Mór. The story ended with Midir’s grandson, Sigmall Cael, killing Eochu.
More Details about Aengus
The Wooing of Etain is one of the most prominent tales where Aengus appeared. In fact, it is not clear whether he was among the gods of the Tuatha de Danann or not. He was a significant member of the Tuatha de Danann, though. However, Aengus only appeared in the first part and the rest was concerned with Etain and his brother, Midir.
There were more tales where Aengus played more vital roles, including the tale of The Dream of Aengus. It is a tale of pure love; this tale is one of the most romantic legends in the Celtic mythology. Aengus was also a guardian of Diarmuid and Grainne. According to the Irish mythology, the two of them were once running from Finn McCool and his men. They bumped into Aengus on their way. He then gave them the advice to take a specific path along their journey. Aengus was very generous with them; he offered his protective cloak along with his sword.
The Dream of Aengus
Apparently, this tale was all about Aengus and searching for his love. In this legend, Aengus had a dream about a woman whom he fell in love with. He wanted to find her, so he asked, the Dagda, king of the Tuatha de Danann, and Boann, for help.
The Dagda wanted to help his son; however, he would not be able to do it all on his own. Thus, he asked Bodb Dearg for help; he asked him to search for the woman. Bodb spent a whole year doing his researches until he claimed that he had gotten to the place of the girl. She resided by the Lake of the Dragons Mouth; however, she was not the only one who lived there. Her name was Caer and she was a swan. Along with her, there were one hundred and fifty other maiden swans. Each pair was tied with gold chains.
Ethel Would Never Let Go
Aengus went to the lake and he quickly identified his own dream lover. He recognized her because she was the tallest among all of the other swans. She was also the daughter of Ethel, but he wanted to keep her around for good. That was why he turned her into a swan and refused to ever let her go. Aengus was frustrated with her father’s decision, so he decided that he could carry her away. Unfortunately, Aengus’s strength wasn’t a good match for a swan’s weight, so he kept weeping for being that weak. Bodb wanted to help, but he knew he needed allies, so he went for Meadbh and Ailill. They went for Ethel, asking him to let his daughter go, but Ethel insisted on keeping her.
The Dagda and Ailill decided to use their powers against Ethel until he let her go. They held him as a prisoner and asked again to take Caer. At that point of the story, Ethel confessed why he was keeping his daughter in the body of a swan. He claimed that he knew that she was stronger than he was. Later, Aengus went to the lake once again and admitted his love for Caer. At that moment, he changed into the form of a swan as well to live with her. The two lovers flew together to a palace on the Boyne. The tale professes that during their flying, there was a music that put people to sleep for three consecutive days.
NUADA OF THE SILVER ARM
Before the Tuatha de Danann arrived in Ireland, Nuada was their king. He remained the king of the Tuatha de Danann for about seven years. After those years, they entered Ireland and fought the Fibolg. The latter were the inhabitants of Ireland by the time the Tuatha de Danann arrived. Before fighting the Firbolg, Nuada asked if they could take a portion of the Island for the Tuatha de Danann. However, the king of the Firbolg refused and they both prepared for the upcoming war. As we previously mentioned, that was the Battle of Mag Tuired where the Tuatha de Danann won. Unfortunately, Nuada lost his arm in this battle and fifty soldiers carried him out of the field by Dagda’s orders. Despite the loss of Nuada’s arm, the Tuatha de Danann gained Ireland as a land for themselves.
Sharing the Land with the Firbolg
Things were going in favor of the Tuatha de Danann; however, there was a change of fate. Sreng, the leader of the Firbolg, wanted to challenge Nuada in a man-to-man battle. While Nuada could have refused and gone on with his life, he actually accepted the challenge. He said he would fight Sreng under on condition; if Sreng tied one of his arms up, but he refused to do so. That saved Nuada lots of trouble, for the Tuatha de Danann had already won. Sreng had to take his people and leave after the defeat. They had to leave the country for good. However, the Tuatha de Danann was generous enough that they left one-quarter of the land for the Firbolg. That part of Connacht; the part offered was smaller than that dealt about before the battle. On the other hand, it was still a win-win situation.
Bres, the New King of the Tuatha de Danann
As we already mentioned, the king had to be in a perfect shape. When Nuada lost his arm, he had to leave the authority for a more eligible king. Bres was the new leader though he was a half-Fomorian. The new king had very oppressive rules that worked for the favor of his other half. He let the Fomorians into Ireland although they were the country’s enemies. Conversely, he made the Tuatha de Danann slaves for them. Bres’s kingship was only a matter of time. As soon as Nuada had a replacement for his lost arm, he took back the kingship. Bres ruled only for seven years while Nuada ruled for seven years at first and then for twenty more years.
Definitely, Bres was not satisfied with that twist of events. He wanted to restore the kingship back, so he asked Balor for help. Balor was the king of the Fomorians. They tried to retake it by force and constantly starting wars against the Tuatha de Danann.
More Claims about Nuada
Earlier, we have stated the four treasures of the Tuatha de Danann. One of them was the great sword of Nuada. Dian Cecht was his brother; he was one of the gods of Ireland as well. Besides, he was a member of the Tuatha de Danann. Dian was the one who crafted the silver arm for his brother Nuada as a replacement. He did it with the help of the wright Creidhne. Unfortunately, Nuada died in the second battle between the Tuatha de Danann and the Fomorians. It was the Second Battle of Mag Tuired. Balor, the leader of the Fomorians, was the one who killed him. However, Lugh was the one who avenged the death of Nuada by killing Balor. After Nuada was gone, Lugh was the next king of the Tuatha de Danann.
GODDESS MORRIGAN STORY
Danu was not the only goddess of the Tuatha de Danann. Apparently, there was more than a few ones. Morrigan was one of them. She was popular for being a shape-shifter and the Goddess of war, death, and fate in the Celtic mythology. Morrigan was also capable of controlling all forms of waters, including lakes, rivers, oceans, and fresh waters. The Celtic mythology usually refers to her with quite a lot of names. These names include The Queen of Demons, The Great Queen, and The Phantom Queen.
The Origin of Goddess Morrigan
Everything in the Irish mythology seems to be usually unclear, especially the origin of the characters. The origin of Goddess Morrigan is ambiguous yet some sources claim that it has a connection to the triple goddesses. The latter is a trending Cult of Mothers that is very popular in the Irish legends. However, other legends appear to depict her as a single figure rather than part of the triple Celtic goddesses. Different sources have different claims. Some say that she married the Dagda and they both had a child named Adair. Contrariwise, some say that she was not his wife, but they once met at a river and that was it.
The Celtic mythology seems to know very little about the life of Goddess Morrigan story. What is obvious from all legends is that she was part of the Tuatha de Danann. She also had quite a few siblings and that includes Macha, Eriu, Banba, Badb, and Fohla. Her mother was Ernmas, another goddess of the Tuatha de Danann.
The Morrigan’s Appearance in the Celtic Folk Tales
The Irish mythology never has one depiction of gods of characters and the Morrigan is no exception. She had been represented in different forms. However, that was mainly because she was a shape-shifter; she can shape herself into whatever creature she wanted to be. Most of the legends claim that the Morrigan was a very beautiful woman yet a frightening one. When she is in a human form, she is a young beautiful woman whose hair flawlessly flows. She possesses a long, dark hair and usually wears black. However, her clothes were most of the time exposing her body. In some tales, she wears a cloak in order to hide her face away from recognition. Those descriptions apply when she’s in the form of a human being, which is a very rare case. Most of the time, The Morrigan appears in the form of either a wolf or a crow.
The Morrigan as a Banshee
Sometimes, the Morrigan appears in the form of a human being, but not that pretty young lady. In some cases, she appears as a frightening woman who is actually a laundress. Mythology refers to her as the Washer at the Ford sometimes. Morrigan had always had a connection to the wars and soldiers. When she is a washerwoman, she appears as if she is washing the clothes of the soon-to-die soldiers. Sometimes she washes armors as well and the piece of clothes she holds are usually blood-stained as a symbol of death. This description escorted people to confuse between her and the Banshee. The latter is a scary woman who only appears at scenes where death is going to take place.
The Shadowy Role of Goddess Morrigan
Based on the different guises that the Morrigan has, it is easy to guess that she had several roles. The Morrigan was part of the Tuatha de Danan, thus, she had magical powers. Her role mainly was all about the usage of magic. Morrigan had always played part in wars and the behavior of the soldiers. Some sources even claim that she was the reason that the Tuatha de Danann defeated the Firbolg. They also claim that she helped the Tuatha de Danann in their battle against the Fomorians. Her control over wars and victory escorted the researchers to believe she actually was responsible for life and death.
Legends say that the Morrigan’s engagement in battles was through hovering over the field. She never physically engaged in them. At those moments, she took the form of a crow and manipulated the outcomes of the battles. In order to help throughout the battles, she summoned soldiers that would help the party she was with. After the battles ended, those soldiers leave the battlefields and the Morrigan later claims the trophies.
The Symbol of Battle
Goddess Morrigan is often the symbol of battle, death, and life. In some cases, the legends depict her as a symbol of the horse, but that is very rare. There was a different perspective on the role of the Morrigan that the modern Pagans believed in. They view her role somehow differently from the Ancient Irish. The Pagans believe that she was a protector and healer while the Irish believed she was frightening. People who follow her still honor her using items like blood bowls and feathers of crows. Some people even hold red clothing as a symbol of her being a laundress.
The Legend of Cu Chulainn
Morrigan appeared in quite a few tales and legends of the Irish mythology. Some of them she only appeared as a crow that controlled battles. And, in other stories, she appeared in her human form. One of the most prominent stories of the Morrigan was the Myth of Cu Chulainn. In this story, she fell in love with a powerful warrior named Cu Chulainn. The Morrigan attempted several times to seduce him; however, he always rejected her. She never accepted the fact that he rejected her, so she decided to avenge her broken heart.
Her Revenge Starts
Goddess Morrigan used her ability to shift her shapes in order to distract Cu Chulainn and ruin his plans. Staying near him was her best way to gain more inner strength. The first time she appeared to him after the rejection, she was a bull. She tried to make him lose track of his path, so she told him that he had to run away. Cu Chulainn did not listen to her and he kept going on his way. The second time she appeared as an eel and attempted to make him trip over. His tripping over would help her to use her magic on him and gain more strength. She failed once again. The third time she changed her appearance into a wolf, trying to scare him and send him off his track.
At last, she stopped changing into animals or strange creatures and decided to take the human shape. That was her final attempt. She appeared to Cu Chulainn as an old woman whose job was milking the cows. Cu Chulainn saw her in that appearance; however, he was able to recognize her. She offered him to drink from the milk of the cow and he agreed. That made him even stronger.
The End of Cu Chulainn
Morrigan did everything in order to make Cu Chulainn fail from accomplishing his plans. All her attempts had failed and that surged the rage inside of her. She decided that Cu Chulainn must die. On one fine day, Cu Chulainn was roaming around on his horse. He noticed Morrigan sitting by a river and washing his armor. She appeared in the portrayal of the Banshee at that scene of the story. When Cu Chulainn saw his armor, he knew that he was going to die. It was the price he had to pay for discarding her love.
On the day of the battle, Cu Chulainn was powerfully fighting until a severe wound hindered his ability to fight. He realized that he was inevitably dying, so he brought a large stone and tied his body to it. Doing that would keep his body in an upright position when he was dead. He was already gone when a crow sat on his shoulder to inform the other soldiers that he was dead.
Brigit is one of the goddesses that descend from the Tuatha de Danann. Her name has always been a great confusion to the researchers of the modern world and so was her identity. Some legends refer to her as one of the triple goddesses for possessing several powers. However, other sources claim that she was two person intertwined in one, resulting in the powerful goddess she was. Her story had always raised many questions and still does. The Celtic mythology usually refers to Catholic Saint Brigid of Kildare; scholars believe that both are the same person. The truth is not clear, for Goddess Brigit supposedly existed in pre-Christian Ireland. While her story remains mysterious, some conclusions state that she transitioned from a goddess to a saint. This statement claims that the two persons are actually one as some scholars state.
The reason for that transition was a method Brigit used to live in the Christian world. It is known that when Saint Patrick arrived with Christianity to Ireland, worshipping of other gods was inadequate in Europe.
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The Story of the Goddess of Fire
Brigit was a Celtic goddess that existed during the Pagan times of Ireland. She was the daughter of the Dagda, the father god, and Boann, the goddess of the rivers. They were all members of the Tuatha de Danann. Brigit was the Goddess of fire; her name means the Glorious one. However, she possessed another name in the ancient Irish times which is Breo-Saighead. The latter means the Fiery Power. The significance of her name is quite obvious though.
Legends state that when she was born, her head fired out flames to prove her control over the solar. Some state that she shared a great unity with the universe, for she had the amazing power of the sun. As the goddess of the sun or fire, the modern depiction of her usually includes rays of fire. Those rays usually stem from her hair as if she had a fiery, scorching hair.
Worshipping of the Goddess Brigit
Brigit was one the Tuatha de Danann prominent goddesses; she definitely had her own worshippers. Some of them called her the Triple Goddess, believing she had three different powers. Brigit was also the patroness of healing, music, fertility, and agriculture. She descended from the Tuatha de Danan who had always used magic with wisdom and skillfulness. Apparently, the ancient Celts were not the only worshippers of that goddess; some islands of Scotlands worshipped her too. All of them remained faithful to their goddesses throughout the years. But, things had taken a slight detour during the arrival of Christianity in Ireland. Brigit had to evolve in religious aspects. She did so because she faced massive pressures. Brigit had to keep her followers; she wanted to remain a worshipped goddess. Otherwise, the worshippers of her would exile her out of their lives for good. That was the evolution of Saint Catholic Brigid.
The Celtic mythology used many names to refer to Brigit. Those names include the Goddess of the Well and Mother Earth. The names had significance for sure. Brigit is the symbol of the sun and fire; however, she had ties to the element of water as well. Her ties to the water stem from the fact that she was the Goddess of the Well. That well branches from the womb of the earth, according to the Irish mythology. For that reason, mythology referred to her as Mother Goddess.
The Evolution of Saint Brigid
Once again, Brigit faced vast pressures when Christianity was popular in the Celtic community. Even the religious and spiritual places changed were Christianized. People would have started to attack her, for Christianity prohibited worshipping gods outside the religion. Because Brigit was part of the Celts’ lives, she evolved from being Goddess of Sun and Fire to Saint Brigid. The latter was only a new version of the goddess. However, it was one that was more suitable for the community. Her transformation resulted in emerging a whole new story of Saint Brigid.
St. Brigid of Kildare
The era of St. Brigid started around 450 AD. Legends refer to her as St. Brigid of Kildare. She was reborn again into a pagan family. When Saint Patrick arrived in Ireland, he converted most of the Irish people to Christians. Brigid’s family was among those who converted to Christianity. As a young girl, Brigid was very generous and compassionate. That was reflected in her behavior towards those in need; she always helped the poor. Brigid’s overly generosity had enraged his own father, the chieftain of Leinster. His name was Dubhthach; he thought of selling his daughter away after she gave away some of his treasured possessions. On the other hand, the king realized the saintliness of Brigid. That was because of her generosity and constant assistance to the poor. Thus, the king decided to gift Brigid with a portion of land to do whatever she would like with.
Brigid made use of the land by building a church under an oak tree. The tree was prominent in the Celtic legends and its place is what now people refer to as Kildare. Kildare is actually pronounced as Kill-dara and it means the Church by the Oak Tree. The Holiness of Brigid became significant and girls learned about it, thus, seven girls followed her. All of them started a religious community there.
Mary of the Gaels
The legend of St. Brigid of Kildare stated the powerfulness of Brigid. She had lots of magical powers which she used to heal wounds and do miracles. She definitely learned her magic from her people; the Tuatha de Danann. It was the reason behind the spread of her popularity around the country. People referred to her as the goddess-saint and people started associating her with the Virgin Mary. For that, people referred to her as Foster Mother of Jesus and sometimes as Mary of the Gaels.
On February 1st comes the day of the Celtic festival day. That day is when people celebrate the phenomenon of Goddess Brigit and worship her. On the very same day, the annual Saint Brigid Feast Day occurs as well. Irish people celebrate this day in the modern times; they make reed of Goddess Brigit St. Brigid’s crosses. They put both symbols in their houses, thinking they bring luck and fortune.
LUGH THE CHAMPION OF THE TUATHA DE DANANN
We previously talked about Lugh. He was the champion of the Tuatha de Danann and member of them. Besides, he was one of the prominent gods of the Tuatha de Danann in the Irish mythology. The depiction of Lugh was usually all about strength and youthfulness. He managed to become a king after avenging the death of Nuada by killing Balor. Lugh was the next king of the Tuatha de Danann after Nuada. Lugh was a truthful king; he believed in laws and oaths. He was the god of storm, sun, and the sky. One of the Four Treasures of the Tuatha de Danann belonged to him. It was the spear; people referred to it as either Lugh’s symbol or the spear symbol. In some cases, they call it Lugh’s spear.
The spear was so much related to Lugh’s name. His full name was Lugh Lámfada; the literal meaning of this word is Long Arms or Long Hands. Probably, this name came from the fact that Lugh used the spear skillfully. He was, like the Tuatha de Danann, skilled in lots of arts.
Joining the Tuatha de Danann
Lugh Lamfada was half-Fomorian and half-Tuatha de Danann. However, he grew up with the Tuatha de Danann. When he was young, he traveled to Tara and joined the court of King Nuada. Lugh arrived at the Tara to find the doorkeeper refusing to let him in. Entering the court required having a skill that was going to be beneficial to the king. As luck would have it, Lugh possessed quite a few talents that would provide the king with amazing services. Lugh offered himself as a historian, a hero, a harpist, a champion, a swordsman, a wright, and more. However, they always rejected him, for the Tuatha de Danann was not in need of the services that Lugh offered.
The last time Lugh went to the court, he was furious for the rejection. He asked if they have someone with all of those skills together. That time, the doorkeeper was not able to deny him from the entrance. After joining the court, Lugh became the Chief Ollam of Ireland. Lugh was capable of captivating the Tuatha de Danann and fascinating them. He got into a contest against another champion, Ogma, where they threw flagstones. Thus, Lugh won the contest and then he played with his harp.
The Thriving Hope of the Tuatha de Danann
The Tuatha de Danann saw hope in Lugh; he was very persistent and determined. He actually joined the Tuatha de Dannan by the time the Fomorians oppressed them when Bres was the temporary king. Lugh was surprised how the Tuatha de Danann accepted that oppression and did not stand against them. On the other hand, Nuada liked his perseverance and grit, hoping that he would bring them freedom and justice. Thus, he let him take command over the army of the Tuatha de Danann.
Stories of the Champion of the Tuatha de Danann, Lugh
Lugh had been a prominent character in the Irish literature. His roles were significant in every tale he appeared. Lugh was a character of multiple skills and powers. He was the god of fire, an invincible warrior, and a just king. Those depictions have resulted in signifying his tales among all the other legends of the Celtic mythology. One of the most noticeable tales in which he appeared is The Cattle Raid of Cooley. The Irish name of the tale is Táin bó Cuailnge and people sometimes refer to it as The Tain. It is one of the oldest tales in the Irish literature; an epic one though. The Tain is one of the tales that fall in the Ulster cycle. It is deemed to be the longest tale of the cycle. Following is the summary of the epic tale and the role of Lugh in it.
The Cattle Raid of Cooley
The tale of The Cattle Raid of Cooley revolves around the dispute that both Connacht and Ulster had. Each of them wanted to possess the brown bull of Cooley. At that time, Conor Mac Neasa was the ruler of Ulster. On the other hand, Connacht was ruled by Queen Maeve and her husband Ailill. The conflict took place when the couple started acting arrogant and mentioning who was richer. Queen Maeve and Ailill both were equally wealthy; however, they compared the valuable materials each owned. Suddenly, Maeve realized that Ailill had something that she hadn’t, which was a great white bull that was incredibly strong. Jealousy and rage had grown inside of Queen Maeve, so she decided to get a bull.
On the next day, she requested her messenger Mac Roth. She asked him if he knew of any great bull around Ireland that’s strength is equal to that of Ailill’s. To her surprise, Mac Roth knew about the brown bull. He told her that the brown bull of Cooley was even much stronger than the white bull that Ailill owned. Queen Maeve was delighted and she ordered Mac Roth to help her get that bull right away.
Rumors Started the War
The brown bull belonged to Daire the king of Ulster. Thus, Maeve sent Mac Roth along with other messengers to Ulster. They asked the king if they can borrow the brown bull for a year in exchange for several benefits. In return, Queen Maeve offered a vast area of a land along with around fifty cows. Gladly, Daire accepted her offer and throw a great feast for the queen’s messengers. While the feast was a supposed to be a cause for celebration, it turned things upside down. During the celebration, Daire overheard a man of the queen’s messenger saying that Daire did the right thing. He said if Daire had refused to give Maeve the bill, she would have taken it even by force. That incident enraged Daire; he ruined the celebration, declaring that Maeve couldn’t have the bull unless she won the war.
Mac Roth and the other messengers had to go back to Connacht and tell the Queen what had happened. They all did and Maeve knew about the incident; that escorted her to inexorable ferocity. She gathered her army and decided to march to Ulster and take the bull by force.
The Battle between Ulster
Queen Maeve and her army marched toward Ulster. The Red Branch Knights, which is the army of Ulster, were waiting for them. Suddenly, a magic spell affected the army of Ulster and they all got sick. However, Cuchulainn was the only whom the spell did not affect. The army of Queen Maeve finally reached their destination, but the other army was too sick to fight them. Cuchulainn was the only warrior who could fight the enemies. To everyone’s surprise, Cuchulainn fought alone and killed most of Queen Maeve’s army on his own.
The best warrior of Maeve’s army was Ferdia. He refused to participate in this battle because Cuchulainn had always been his childhood friend. However, Maeve wanted him to fight against Cuchulainn, for he was equally strong. She told Ferdia that Cuchulainn was claiming that he didn’t want to participate in fearing him. Ferdia was enraged and decided to fight his best friend. They both kept fighting for three consecutive days with no one gaining the upper hand. Besides, they still cared for each other by sending herbs and drinks back and forth. At the end, Ferdia betrayed Cuchulainn and hit him while he wasn’t aware. On the other hand, Cuchulainn hit his spear into Ferdia’s arm, sending him to death. Despite winning, Cuchulainn wept over his lost friend.
Lugh’s Little Yet Significant Role
Lugh, the champion of the Tuatha de Danann, is actually the father of Cuchulainn. He appeared during the long series of combat that Cuchulainn went through. Lugh healed all of his son’s wound through the span of three consecutive days. In a different version of the story, it was stated that Cuchulainn was dying due to his severe wound. Lugh appeared when Cuchulainn’s body was getting transferred back to Ulster and revived him.
The Fight of the Two Bulls
Although that the Ulster army won, the queen’s army managed to take the brown bull before leaving back to Connacht. Maeve’s brown bull competed with Ailill’s white bull and the battle resulted in the death of Ailill’s bull. Surprisingly, the brown bull’s heart stopped all at once and it dropped dead. The story started with Ailill and Maeve arguing over their wealth and ended with none of them richer. However, many souls were lost through the tale due to the arrogance of those two.
THE GODDESS OF RIVER BOYNE: BOANN
River Boyne is a momentous river in Ireland; it exists in Leinster. According to the Irish mythology, Boann was the Irish goddess of that river, River Boyne. She was a member of the Tuatha de Danann and all of her family descended from the same race. Her father was Delbaeth, another member of the Tuatha de Danann, and her sister was Befind. In Old Irish, her name was written as Boand and later it changed to Boaan. However, the modern version of her name is Bionn. The interpretation of her name is the White Cow; the symbolism behind this name remains mysterious. We have already given a brief description of Boann earlier. She was the wife of Elcmar; however, she had an affair with the Dagda. Their affair resulted in conceiving their son, Aengus, the god of love and youth of the Tuatha de Danann.
For some reason, today’s critics and analysts believe that there is a connection between goddess Boann and goddess Brigid. They speculate that since Brigid was more significant, Boann might be a minor symbolism rather than a whole different goddess. On the other hand, modern paganism suggests that Boann may be the daughter of goddess Brigid. Their speculation was not supported by any Celtic sources, so it may just have been a random guess.
The Creation of the River
At some point, River Boyne was either inexistent or unknown to the people. Once it became a prominent river in Ireland, stories about its creation started to evolve. The creation of the river has always been associated with Goddess Boann. So, it is easy to speculate the reason behind her being the goddess of this river. How Boann created the river has always had two versions. The tale of Dindsenchas illustrated one of the versions. This version narrates the story of the magical Well of Segais- some people call it the Connla’s Well. Around the well were a lot of scattered hazels. Boann’s husband in that story was Nechtan and he prohibited her from going near that well. Those hazelnuts also fell into the well and the salmon ate them.
Boann ignored her husband’s orders which were staying away from the well and kept walking around the well. Her circular motions stimulated the waters of the well to fiercely upwell. When the water surged up, it rushed down forming a sea. That was how River Boyne came into life. During that process, goddess Boann lost an arm, eye, and a leg due to the coursing flood. Eventually, she lost her life as well.
The Second Version of the Creation of River Boyne
Well, the difference between the two versions is very slight. The difference lies in the fact that Goddess Boann hadn’t died tragically. Different sources claim that Boann went to the Well of Segais. This well was the source of wisdom and knowledge. Like the other version of the story, Boann kept walking around the well. Her counter-clockwise spin caused the water to flush out of the well violently and throw her into the sea. When Boann dashed into the sea, she changed into a salmon; like the ones that lived in the well. Becoming a salmon made her the goddess of the new river and the salmon of wisdom. Celtic people called her the mother of the river. She was not only mother of the river Boyne, but also of the most important rivers around the world.
Boann’s Role In the Irish Mythology
Boann was the goddess of river Boyne and she had quite a lot of roles in the Celtic tales. She was once the protector of the mortal Fráech. Besides, she was his maternal aunt as well and that was in the tale of Táin Bó Fraích. According to many tales in the mythology, Boann had many husbands. No one is sure who the real one was, for they were different persons, varying from one tale to another. In one tale, Boann’s husband was actually the mortal Elemar and in others, he was Nechtan, the god of water.
Analysts speculate that Nechtan might have been the Dagda, leader of the Tuatha de Danann. They believe that both characters were actually the same person. However, there is a tale that contradicts their speculation. There was a Celtic tale that claims that Boann had an affair with the Dagda while her husband was away. In this story, Elcmar was her husband. She got pregnant and the Dagda had to stop the time to conceal her pregnancy. It was the tale when Aengus, the god of love and youth, was born.
Boann and the Birth of Music
The Dagda, leader of the Tuatha de Danann, once had a harpist, Uaithne. In one tale, he was the husband of Boann. He used to play music for her that even sources attribute the birth of the music’s stains to her. Those three stains are sleep, joy, and weeping. Boann and Uaithne had three children together. With the birth of each child, Boann introduced one stain of music.
When they had their first son, Uthaine played the healing music while Boann was crying out. That was supposedly the first introduction of the lamentation music to the world. The music of joy came to life with the birth of the second child, for Boann was crying in joy. She was in pain yet she was happy for the arrival of her second baby. Boann’s third delivery seemed to be so easy that she actually slept while Uthaine played music. That was the reason that the sleep music was born.
More of Boann’s Contribution to the Celtic Mythology
Boann lived in Brug na Bóinne. That site was a popular destination for spiritual travelers. It was full of chambers where guests resided; interestingly, some chambers were meant only for the Fairy folks. At this site, there were three fruit trees; they were magical where they provided fruits all year round. Sources claim that these trees produced hazelnuts although other sources believe they were apple trees. However, the theory of the hazelnuts makes more sense because Boann’s story mentioned the hazelnuts that fell in the well. At those trees, visitors performed their spiritual rituals and connected with their inner souls. Here is when Boann’s role comes; she assists those visitors in getting in touch with their spiritual side. For that reason, people refer to her as the goddess of inspiration besides being the goddess of the river.
The mythology claims that Boann was able to clear your mind and banish any negativity with her powers. She was also the goddess of poetry and writing as well as music, as previously stated.
LIR OF THE HILL OF THE WHITE FIELD
In Ireland, there’s a hill that people call the hill of the white field. The Irish equivalent of the site’s name is Sídh Fionnachaidh. This field has great connections to a sea; the description of the sea resembles that of Lir’s. Lir was a god that descended from the Tuatha de Danann. He was the father of the sea god, Manannán Mac Lir, who also was one of the Tuatha de Danann. According to the Irish mythology, Lir was a caring and considerate person. He was a fierce warrior and one of the gods of the Tuatha de Danann. In one of the Celtic tales, the Tuatha de Danann wanted to choose a new king for themselves. Lir thought himself to be the best candidate; however, he wasn’t the one who got the kingship. Instead, Bodb Dearg became the King of the Tuatha de Danann.
When Lir learned about that result, he got furious and left without a word. He was very sad for not being able to become the King of the Tuatha de Danann. Bodb Dearg, sometimes named Bov the Red, wanted to compensate Lir. Thus, he offered Eve, his daughter, for Lir to marry; she was his eldest daughter. Legends of Ireland claim that Eve was not Bodb’s real daughter. It states that he was her foster father while the real father was actually Ailill of Aran. Lir married Eve and they lived happily together. From their marriage comes the tale of the Children of Lir.
The Tale of The Children of Lir
The Children of Lir is one of the most popular legends in the Irish mythology. It revolves around the beauty of the swans and their symbolism. In fact, more than a few tales have included swans in their plots. They have always been symbols of love and fidelity. The tale of The Children of Lir is all about love, faithfulness, and patience. The story is very sad yet heart-touching. Briefly, it narrates the life of four children who were forced to spend the rest of their lives as swans. Here are the necessary details in the plot of the story:
The Unexpected Death of Eve
The story starts with Lir who agreed to marry Eve, the daughter of the King of the Tuatha de Danann. They both married and lived happily ever after. They had four children; a daughter, a son, and a twin. The girl was Fionnuala, the son was Aed, while the twin boys were Fiacra and Conn. Unfortunately, Eve died while she was giving birth to the youngest twins. Lir was really devastated and disturbed. He loved her too much. After the death of Eve, Lir and his children became miserable and their home was no longer a cheerful place. Bodb realized their sadness and wanted to act upon it. He had always been solution-oriented. To fix those matters, Bodb offered his other daughter, Aobh, to Lir. He thought that Lir would be happy again and the children would love to have a new mother.
Lir agreed to marry Aobh and he, along with his children, was happy again. He was a very caring and loving father who showered his kids with attention constantly. Lir even let his children sleep with him and Aoife in the same room. He wanted them to be the first thing he woke up to and the last thing to sleep to. However, Aoife was not satisfied with the situation and things started going upside down.
Aoife’s Jealousy Takes Over
According to the Irish mythology, Aoife was a woman warrior that played several roles in lots of legends. She was Eve’s sister, Bodb’s stepdaughter, and Ailill of Aran’s real daughter. Aoife married Lir and was very happy with him until she realized his affection for his children. She was very jealous and decided to send the kids away. However, she was too coward to kill them by herself, so she ordered one of the servants to do it. The servant certainly refused to do so, thus, Aoife had to find a different plan. On a fine day, Aoife took the four children to play and have fun in a nearby lake. It was a little nice trip that the children enjoyed. However, that lake was the place where it all started.
When the children were done playing and swimming, they got out of the water. They were ready to go home, unaware of their awaiting fate. Aoife stopped them by the lake and cast a spell that turned the four of them into beautiful swans. The spell would leave the children trapped in the bodies of the swans for three hundred years. Fionnuala cried out, asking Aoife to take the spell back, but it was already too late.
Exiling Aoife for Good
Bodb learned about what his daughter did to his grandchildren. He was surprised and too furious with her unbelievable act. Thus, he turned her into a demon and exiled her for good. Lir was so sad for what happened to his children. However, he remained the same loving father he had always been. He wanted to stay close to his children, so he set a camp and resided by the lake. The site that had taken became a residence to many people and they would hear the swans sing. Bodb joined Lir and lived near the children as well. Despite what had happened to them, they were all happy together.
Sadly, the spell that Aoife cast involved that the children shall live nine hundred years as swans. Each three hundred years would be on a different lake. The children’s time on Lake Derravarragh was over. They had to leave their family to go to the Sea of Moyle. Their last three hundred years were on the Atlantic Ocean. At times, they flew back to their home to look for their father, grandfather, and people. Unfortunately, they were all gone and nothing was left. Even the castle in which they used to live in as humans were in ruins. The Tuatha de Danann already had gone undergrounds.
DIAN CECHT THE HEALER OF THE TUATHA DE DANANN
Apparently, the Tuatha de Danann was a big spiritual family full of gods and goddesses. Each god of them had his special power that was useful to the Tuatha de Danann. The collection of all of those different powers made them a sturdy race in ancient Ireland. Among their gods, there was a physician and a healer. Dian Cecht was his name and he was a significant member of the Tuatha de Danann. Dian Cecht was a great healer; he had always healed any man even those who had severe and deep wounds.
The mythology claims that his way of healing followed the Celtic rituals of bathing and drowning. Dian actually threw those who had wounds into a well and then he pulled them up. He healed the wounded and whoever was dead came out of alive. People referred to that well as the Well of Health, or Slane in Old Irish. Dian Cecht blessed it and used it for curing the wounded soldiers of the Tuatha de Danann. Dian once used that well to replace an eye for Midir. He replaced it with an eye of a cat.
Dian Cecht’s Family Members
The Dagda was the father of Dian Cecht. Dian ruled a tribe of gods and was a prevailing healer for the soldiers of the Tuatha de Danann. He had two sons; Cian and Miach. Cian was the one who took revenge of Balor by sleeping with his daughter and conceiving Lugh. Miach was a healer like his father; however, Dian Cecht was usually jealous of his own son. Although Dian Cecht and Miach were healers, they both used different methods.
The Diancecht Porridge and Dian’s Jealousy
Dian Cecht believed in his own healing powers. He claimed that whoever was injured should receive a payment in any form. This payment could be money or valuable stuff. Lots of people believed in this method and used it until 8 BC. They refer to it as The Diancecht’s Porridge. However, people in the modern world stopped believing in this porridge. His son used different methods of healing. Miach preferred using herbs and prayers for healing.
When Nuada lost his arm during the battle of the Tuatha de Danann against the Fomorian, he had another one. Dian Cecht crafted this arm; it was silver in color. For that reason, people referred to Nuada as Nuada of the Silver Arm. The hand looked and seemed real; its movement was very real that no one suspected its reality. On the other hand, Miach, his son, was more skillful at healing than his own father. He was capable of changing Nuada’s arm into a real one as if he never lost it at all. Thus, it made Dian Cecht erupt with fury and jealousy. Those emotions drove him to kill his own son.
Airmed was a goddess of the Tuatha de Danann, Miach’s sister, and Dian Cecht’s daughter. She cried for her brother and her tears contained lots of herbs. Those herbs contained the same healing powers that the Well of Health contained. She wanted to figure them out, but she couldn’t because her father’s rage extended to the destruction of those herbs.
The Myth of the Boiling River
Ireland possesses a river that people call The River Barrow. The literal meaning of the name of the river is “The boiling river.” Irish legends and myths are plentiful; they never seem to cease or have an end. The story of this river is one of them. People connect it to Dian Cecht, the healer of the Tuatha de Dannan. The tale claims that Dian Cecht saved Ireland. He did so by delivering Morrigan’s, goddess of war of Tuatha de Danann, child.
When the child came to the world, Dian Cecht suspected it to be an evil, so he killed the baby. He took the baby’s body, opened its chest, and figured out the child had three serpents. Those serpents were capable of causing massive destruction to every living body. Thus, Dian demolished the three serpents and took their ashes to a river. He threw the ashes there and that was when the river boiled, hence the name.
Dian was one of the clever healers of the Tuatha de Danann. However, he was not the best father that anyone would wish for. The end of Dian Cecht life was a very tragic one. He died in the Battle of Moyture due to a poisoned weapon.
THE IRISH GODDESS OF WAR: MACHA
The Tuatha de Danann had as many gods as they had the goddesses. Goddess Macha was one of them; she was a member of the Tuatha de Danann. The mythology refers to her as the goddess of war or of land. Crunnius was her husband and people believed she was one of the triple goddesses. A lot of tales confuse her and the Morrigan. Both of them usually appear as crows at the battlefields and manipulate the battles’ results. However, the difference between both of them is that Macha usually appeared as a horse. Morrigan was usually a wolf and had never been a horse. One more similarity between the two goddesses is that both were described as Washer at the Ford. The legend of the Banshee has connections with both of them.
While some people believe she is part of the triple goddesses, she has three elements that make the name suitable. One of those elements was the maternal reproductive part; the second was the element of lands or agricultural. The last one was the element of sexual fertility. Those three elements were the reason behind forming the figure of mother goddess. She was mother of land as well as war.
The Three Versions of Macha
The Celtic folk tales feature three versions of Macha. Each version illustrated Macha with specific personalities and different traits; they were all equally interesting. One common thing that three versions claim is that Ernmas was her mother. However, the first version states that Macha’s husband was Nemed. The literal meaning of his name is Sacred. Nemed was the one who invaded Ireland before the Tuatha de Danann. He fought the Fomorians and stayed in Ireland. Legends claim that there was a race, the Nemeds, that resided in Ireland long before the Tuatha de Danann came.
The second version of Macha was that where people referred to her as Mong Ruadh. The latter means Red Hair. She had a red hair in this tale and she was both a warrior and a queen. Macha, in this version, had beaten her rivals and had power over them. She forced them to build Emain Macha for her and they had to do it. At last, the third version was the one we stated at the beginning. It was that version when she was the wife of Crunniuc. The third version is actually the most popular one among all of them.
The Most Popular Tales of Macha
Macha appeared in several tales; however, there was a specific one that is the most popular about her. In this tale, the third version of Macha was very prominent. The story revolves around Macha who had supernatural powers. She was capable of outrunning any creature on earth even the fastest animals. Crunniuc was her husband in that tale and she asked him to conceal her magical powers. She did not want anyone to know what she had. However, her husband ignored her demand and bragged about his wife in front of the king of Ulster. The king seemed interested in the secret that Crunniuc had let out. Thus, he ordered his men to capture Macha who was pregnant at that time. He wanted her to run against horses in a race, not paying attention to her condition as a pregnant woman.
Macha had to do what asked her to do. She ran the race and surprisingly, she won. However, her condition started to deteriorate as soon as she crossed the finish line. She gave birth at the end of the race and she was in extreme pain. One version claims that she died after giving birth to twins. The most popular scene was Macha cursing all the men of Ulster while she was dying. She wanted them to endure the pain of childbirth and suffer as they made her do.
OGMA THE GOD OF LANGUAGE AND SPEECH
Ogma or Oghma is another god of the many ones of the Tuatha de Danann. Besides, he made an appearance in both the Irish and the Scottish mythologies. The two mythologies refer to him as the god of language and speech, for he had the gift of writing. Ogma was also a poet; he had a prevailing talent that tales always mentioned. Who exactly Ogma was can be a bit confusing, for the mythology has different versions of that matter. The story of the Tuatha de Danann tells us about lots of people that goddess Danu and the Dagda conceived. One tale claims that Ogma was the son of the Dagda and goddess Danu, mother of the Tuatha de Danann. Above and beyond, Ogma was the fairest son of Dagda and Danu. He even had a hair that emitted sunrays from it as it was very bright.
Ogma was the one who invented the Ogham alphabet; he taught people to write in the Ogham language. For that, the mythology calls him the god of language and speech. More tales profess that Ogma invented quite a lot of languages and not only the Ogham. He was responsible for teaching people about the art of words and poetry. Yet he was an inconvincible warrior. The mythology depicted him as one of the trios; Ogma, Lugh, and the Dagda. Lugh was his half-brother and the Dagda was their father. However, some sources claim that the Dagda was his brother as well.
Ogma’s Family Members
Again, the story of the Tuatha de Danann claims that the Dagda is Ogma’s father and Danu was his mother. Different tales claim otherwise; they state that the Dagda is his brother and he had different parents. Some sources claim that Elatha was the father of Ogma and Ethliu was his mother. Besides, there are more sources that profess that Etain was Ogma’s mother. There had been more than a few debates about the parents of Ogma. And, who the real ones were remains ambiguous. Ogma was the father to Tuireann and Delbaeth although some tales show that he had three sons. The three sons of Ogma were married to three sisters. Those sisters were Eire, Fotla, and Banba. They had the talent of prophecy and prediction.
When the Tuatha de Danann was heading to Ireland, the land’s name was still Inisfail. The three sisters were usually predicting the incidents that took place. So, Ogma promised to name the land as one of them. The choice was according to which sister made the most accurate predictions about the Tuatha de Danann. Eire was the one who was very accurate in her prophecies. Thus, as soon as the Tuatha de Danann reached the shores of Inisfail, they called it the land of Eire. The modern version of the name Eire now is Ireland, which everyone is familiar with.
The Story of Ogma and the Tuatha de Danann
Besides being a poet and writer, Ogma was also an undefeatable warrior for his undeniable strength. Some sources also claimed that Ogma resembles Herakles of other cultural mythologies in his strength. When the Tuatha de Danann entered Ireland at first, they fought against the Firbolg in the Battle of Mag Tuired. Ogma participated in this battle and they won. However, the Tuatha de Danann had a new leader, Bres, who made them slaves to the Fomorians. During the reign of Bres, Ogma was the one who carried firewood due to his athletic body. He was the champion of the Tuatha de Danann before Lugh became one. When Nuada got the kingship back, Lugh was a threat to Ogma. He had always been threatening since he stepped into the court of Nuada. Ogma challenged him to carry an unbelievable weight of flagstones. Surprisingly, they were both equally strong.
During the reign of Nuada, Lugh was the champion of the Tuatha de Danann. However, when Lugh became the new leader of the Tuatha de Danann, he made Ogma the champion. They entered another battle against the Fomorians, but the result was shadowy. Some sources claim that Ogma got into a combat against Indech, the king of the Fomorians, and they both died. However, other sources claim that the Fomorians ran away where the Tuatha de Danann pursued them. To be more precise, Ogma, Dagda, and Lugh were the pursuers. They wanted to retain the harp of Dagda’s harper, Uthaine.
NEIT GOD OF WAR
Neit was another god that the family of the Tuatha de Danann introduces to us. He was the grandfather of Balor of the Poisoned Eye; Balor was Lugh’s grandfather. Neit was a member of the Tuatha de Danann; however, his grandson was one of the Fomorians. But, that was not surprising, as the same applies to Balor’s grandson, Lugh who was from the Tuatha de Danann. The Irish mythology can be confusing. Neit was also uncle of the Dagda and he gave him his Stonehouse. This place now is what people refer to as the grave of Aed, who was son of the Dagda.
Sometimes, mythology refers to the wife of Neit as Nemain, another goddess of the Tuatha de Danann. However, it sometimes claims that Badb was his real wife. Some people believe that Badb makes more sense as the wife of Neit. That was because she was the goddess of War, just like him. People usually confuse her with Morrigan as well as Macha. The Three of them bear the same depiction in the Irish mythology. They were goddesses of war and appeared in the form of crows to manipulate the battles according to their favor. Maybe, that is why the mythology has what is called the Triple Goddesses. It describes the similar abilities of the three goddesses despite being different characters.
THE GODDESS AIRMED, HEALER OF THE TUATHA DE DANANN
Airmed is one of the goddesses of the Tuatha de Danann. She was the daughter of Dian Cecht and sister of Miach. Like both of them, she was a healer. Her name sometimes is written as Airmid instead of Airmed. Either way, she was one of the healers of the Tuatha de Danann. She helped her father and brother in healing the injured members of the Tuatha de Danann in battles. Not only was she the healer of the Tuatha de Danann, she was also an enchanter. She was one of the prominent enchanters of the Tuatha de Danann, along with her father and brother. Their singing was capable of reviving the dead.
Tales of Airmed
Airmed was popular in the Celtic mythology as the only one who knew about Herbalism. She and her brother used herbs and incantations in healing the wounds. Her brother was very talented that their father was jealous of him. When Miach gave Nuada a real arm instead of the silver one that his dad gave him, Dian killed him. In fact, Dian Cecht was jealous of both of his children, for their skills were obvious to everyone. People realized how skillful they were and knew that their skills were superior to their father’s. However, Dian Cecht killed his son in particular because he changed Nuada’s arms into veins, blood, and flesh. Airmed was devastated by her brother’s brutal death. She buried him and wept an ocean of tears over his grave.
One day, Airmed arrived at Miach’s grave to realize that healing herbs grew around and on the grave. She knew that her tears were the reason for their growth and she was delighted with that fact. They were about 365 herbs; people claim that they were the world’s best healing herbs.
Her Jealous Father Ruins Things Again
Airmed was joyful and started collecting the herbs and organizing them. Each herb spoke to her, claiming the power of healing that it had. She separated them according to their powers and particular usage. Airmed hid them in her cloak to keep them away from the blowing winds. However, her cheerfulness was not to last as her father realized what Airmed was hiding. He overturned the cloak so that the wind would blow away all of the herbs. Airmed remained the one person who knew about and remembered the herbs of healing. But, she could not pass them to younger generations because of her father. Dian Cecht wanted to make sure no one would learn about the secrets of immortality. Apparently, his rage and jealousy had consumed him.
Airmed was furious, but there was nothing she could do about it. She made sure she remembered what the herbs told her about the healing powers. Thus, she used that knowledge in healing people with her magical skills. Some sources claim that Airmed is still alive and live in the mountains of Ireland. They believe she is still the healer of Elves and fairies, including the leprechauns and their hobbit counterparts.
MORE GODS AND GODDESSES OF THE TUATHA DE DANANN
The Tuatha de Danann was actually a big family and the most ancient in the Irish mythology. It is claimed that they were the ones who populated Ireland, so, for that, we should all be thankful. We have already listed a huge list of the most prominent gods and goddess that descend from the Tuatha de Danann. But, it seems like the Irish mythology has no end. So, there were more gods, or goddesses, that we would like to introduce them to you. They were not among the most prominent ones in the mythology. However, they played their own roles as well.
Ernmas, an Irish Mother Goddess
Ernmas was an Irish mother goddess. She did not have any significant roles in the Irish folktales. That was because she died in the first battle of Mag Tuired when the Tuatha de Danann defeated the Firbolg. She was one of the Tuatha de Danann. Despite her insignificance, she gave birth to some of the most prominent gods and goddess of the Celtic mythology. She was the mother of a trinity of sons; Glonn, Gnim, and Coscar along with two more, Fiacha and Ollom. Some sources also claim that she was the mother of the three Irish goddesses Érie, Banba, and Fótla. The three of them were wives of the three sons of Ogma. At last, Ernmas was also the mother of the popular trinity of war goddesses, the Badb, Macha and the Mórrígan. They were the three goddesses that people usually confused between them.
Nemain, another Irish Goddess
Nemain was part of the Tuatha de Danann. The modern spelling of her name is usually Neamhain or Neamhan. She was a goddess that interfered with battles and controlled the results of the battle according to her favor. The Irish mythology seems to always make things confusing. But, this description makes Nemain one of the goddesses of war. It means she was part of the trio of goddesses that make up the Morrigna. However, most of the sources claim the triple goddesses were actually Macha, the Morrigan, and Badb. The only explanation that would make sense at the moment, that one of them was Nemain. In other words, Nemain was one of the three goddesses; however, she had more than one name.
WHERE DID THE TUATHA DE DANANN END UP?
When the Milesians arrived in Ireland, they fought the Tuatha de Danann. Even though the Tuatha de Danann hid Ireland from the Milesians, they were able to come back. According to their deal, the Milesians had the right to take the land if they were ever to come back. There were two versions of what had happened when the Milesians came to Ireland. One of them professes that the two races fought and the Milesians won. Thus, the Tuatha de Danann had to leave and they ended up taking the underground part. On the other hand, the second version claims that the Tuatha de Danann predicted what could happen if they fought. Thus, they withdrew from the beginning and went to the Otherworld for good. That was why the mythology, in some cases, refers to them as the Sidhe. It means people of the underworld.
It looks like the Irish mythology is a world that never ceases to evoke tales and stories. They all might have different versions as well, making things more interesting. The story of how the Tuatha de Danann disappeared had always taken different detours. We have already mentioned the two most popular versions; however, there is one more that is worth mentioning. The Celtic mythology gives us a tale that claims a new place that the Tuatha de Danann went to. That place was Tir na nOg, meaning The Land of the Young. There is even a whole story about it.
What is the Tir na nOg?
The literal meaning of Tir na nOg is the Land of the Young. Sometimes, the mythology refers to it as Tir na hOige, instead, which means Land of the Youth. Both ways, they both have the same meaning and this place, actually, refers to the Otherworld. At several points along the article, we have mentioned that the Tuatha de Danann went to the Otherworld. They had to do that after the Milesians were capable of captivating the lands of Ireland and residing there. Thus, the Tuatha de Danann are usually the residents of the Otherworld or Tir na nOg. They settled there and took that place as a new home for their race.
How Did it Look Like?
The location of Tir na nOg or the Land of the Young does not exist on the map. Some people claim that it does not exist on the map because it sits under the surface of Ireland. However, other people believe it is just a mythical place that exists in the tales of the Irish folklore. The depiction of this place is usually heavenly. The tales always illustrate the Land of the Young as a paradise. It’s an empire where you forever stay young, healthy, beautiful, and happy. Besides, your race would never extinct there. That explains the belief that the Tuatha de Danann is still alive in spite of being ancient. Above and beyond, they seem to be the only inhabitants of the lands of the Otherworld. But some fairies and elves live there, including the leprechauns. Legend has it that the leprechauns descend from the Tuatha de Danann.
Entering the Land of the Young
In many tales of the Irish mythology, some heroes and warriors visit the Land of the Young throughout their journey. However, someone from the residents shall be the one who invited them, so that they can get into that world. There were several ways for heroes to reach to Tir na nOg although it does not exist on the map. The most common way of reaching there is going underwater or crossing the sea to the other side. It usually involves waters and overcoming them. On the other hand, some tales claim that heroes entered Tir na nOg through burial caves and mounds. They reached there through ancient undergrounds that people have abandoned for a very long time.
Among the most popular Irish folktales lies the tale of Tir na nOg. There is an actual tale that bears that name and it describes how that place looks like. It also states how people there stay young and beautiful for good. The hero of this story was Oisin, pronounced as Osheen. He was the son of Finn MacCool. One of the residents of the Tuatha de Danann invited him to come and live in Tir na nOg.
The Popular Tale of Tir na nOg
This popular tale of Oisin was the reason people became aware of the Tir na nOg. The tale falls in the Fenian Cycle. Oisin was an invincible warrior who descended from the Fianna. He was son of Finn MacCool as well. The whole tale revolves around Oisin and Niamh, a beautiful woman of the Otherworld. She was one of the residents of the Otherworld, so she might be one of the Tuatha de Danann. There were no sources that claim this fact; however, it seems to make sense. In fact, there weren’t sources that refer to other races that live in the Otherworld along the Tuatha de Danann. The tale does not revolve around the Tuatha de Danann themselves. However, it narrates the story of a woman, Niamh, that might have been part of the Tuatha de Danann.
Niamh Luring Oisin into Her World
Going straight to the point, the tale starts with Niamh going to Ireland and paying Finn MacCool a visit. She was in love with his son Oisin and she asked him if he can accompany her to Tir na nOg. Niamh was a very attractive woman; Oisin fell in love with her the moment he saw her. He agreed to go with her to her own world and live there. Thus, Niamh brought her horse, Enbarr. It possessed a lot of magical powers. One of them was walking and running over the surface of the water. Waters were usually the most guaranteed passages to lead to Tir na nOg. Oisin mounted the magical horse and their journey began.
Oisin was happy there and stayed young for a very long time. He even had two children with Niamh. However, after three hundred years, he felt homesick. He wanted to go back to his home, Ireland, and see his people. In fact, he was not even aware of the years that have passed. He thought that he had been there for only three years. Oisin asked Niamh to take the horse, Enbarr, and visit his place. She agreed, but she warned him that he should never dismount the horse or let his feet touch the ground. If he did, he would die right away.
Dying in Ireland
Oisin agreed to stay on the horse as long as he was there in Ireland. He went to Ireland only to find his home covered in ruins and that his people were no longer there. They died a long time ago as three hundred years had passed. Oisin was sad for not being able to meet his people one more time. He decided to go back to Tir na nOg. While he was starting his journey, he met a group of men who were building some kind of structure. He believed they needed help, but he knew he shall not dismount the horse as his wife warned him. Thus, he decided to help them while being on the horse.
Oisin was lifting something off of the ground when he accidentally fell off the horse’s back. Suddenly, he rapidly began to grow up; catching up with the three hundred years he had missed. As a consequence, he became an old man who died because of being wane and old. Enbarr, the horse, had to leave Oisin behind and he ran away. The horse went back to the Land of the Young. When Niamh saw it without Oisin mounting its back, she realized what had happened.
Another Version of the Ending
Another version of the story claims that Oisin hasn’t died right away when he fell off the horse. It states that he remained old for a very short period of time. Saint Patrick showed up to him and Oisin started telling him his story. Before he died, Saint Patrick converted him to Christianity. Nobody knows which version was the original one, but they both share the same ending of Oisin’s death.
Nimah in the Irish Mythology
The mythology professes that Niamh was the daughter of Manannán mac Lir, god of the Sea. Manannan was a member of the Tuatha de Danann, so Niamh was, at least, half-Tuatha de Danann. Her name was pronounced as Niaf. She was a queen of Tir na nOg; there were many other queens along with her. While the sources are not definite about this fact, some claim that Fand was her mother.
Who was Fand?
Fand was the daughter of Aed Abrat. He was probably the son of the Dagda who has a grave in Ireland by his name; Aed’s grave. She had two siblings, Aengus and Li Ban. Her husband was Manannán mac Lir and, probably, Niamh was her daughter.
Most of the tales that she appeared in were ones of the Ulster Cycle. She appeared in the form of a bird that came from the Otherworld. The most popular tale of hers was Serglige Con Culainn, which means the Sick Bed of Cu Chulainn.
A Brief about Serglige Con Culainn
The story of Serglige Con Culainn is about another clash between the hero and a woman of the Otherworld. It claims that Cu Chulainn attacked the women of the otherworld. Well, this time they don’t seem to refer to the Morrigan who fell in love with him. The Morrigan had actually killed him for revenge in The Legend of Cu Chulainn. However, in this tale, Cu Chulainn was cursed for his attacks. He decided to make up for his wrong deeds by giving military aids to whomever he offended. During his process of making up to the Otherworld, he developed a relationship with a woman of them. She was Fand, Niamh’s mother. Cu Chulainn’s wife, Emer, learned about their affair and she grew jealous. She was so consumed with rage. Fand realized her jealousy and decided that she shall leave Cu Chulainn alone. She then returned to her world.
To read the full tale of Serglige Con Culainn, Click Here.
At the end, it is obvious how the culture of Ireland is full of captivating tales and unique traditions. What makes Ireland so special is the fact that it resembles many European cultures yet remains different. If you have enjoyed reading this article, you may love to learn more about the peculiar Irish culture. Check out the different dishes you can try the Irish food. Also, indulge in their superstitions by learning about the traditions of Irish weddings.