Heliopolis: Everything You Need to Know about the City of the Sun


Updated On: April 18, 2024 by   Dina EssawyDina Essawy

Heliopolis was once an ancient city, one of the major cities in ancient Egypt. Taking its name from the Ptolemaic Greek name Hēlioúpolis, meaning “City of the Sun”, the city also appears in the Old Kingdom Pyramid Texts as the “House of Ra”.

Reportedly, Alexander the Great stopped in Heliopolis on his march from Pelusium to Memphis.

The district became a hub of culture and learning during the Greek period. According to Herodotus, the priests of Heliopolis were the best informed in all the Egyptians’ history.

Sadly, there are little to no remains today of the ancient Egyptian city. The only surviving monument is the obelisk of Sesostris I, the oldest obelisk.

Decline and Rediscovery

Despite its illustrious history, Heliopolis declined in importance during the Ptolemaic and Roman periods (circa 332 BCE – 395 CE) as other cities such as Alexandria and Memphis rose to prominence. The once-great temples and monuments fell into disrepair, and Heliopolis faded into obscurity as the sands of time swallowed its ancient splendour.

However, the legacy of Heliopolis endured through the ages. In the 19th century, the site captured the imagination of European explorers and archaeologists eager to uncover the secrets of ancient Egypt. Excavations led by renowned scholars such as Flinders Petrie and Gaston Maspero unearthed a treasure trove of artefacts, inscriptions, and architectural remains, shedding new light on the history and culture of Heliopolis.

Archaeological Discoveries

Despite the passage of millennia, the legacy of Heliopolis endures through its archaeological remains. Excavations conducted in the 19th and 20th centuries have unearthed many artefacts and structures, shedding light on the city’s ancient past.

One of the most significant discoveries was the obelisk known as Cleopatra’s Needle, which initially stood at the entrance to the Temple of Ra. Carved from a single piece of red granite, the obelisk is adorned with inscriptions commemorating the reign of Pharaoh Thutmose III (1479–1425 BCE). It now stands in London, a testament to the enduring fascination with ancient Egypt.

Other notable finds include fragments of statues, pottery, and architectural elements, providing valuable insights into the daily life and religious practices of the ancient Egyptians. Excavations are ongoing, with archaeologists continuing to uncover new clues about Heliopolis and its significance in antiquity.

Once Isolated, Now Integrated

Heliopolis was first established outside of Cairo in 1905 by the Heliopolis Oasis Company. Belgian industrialist Baron Empain, an Egyptologist and entrepreneur, helmed the company. Empain first arrived in Egypt in January 1904 to construct a railway line between Al-Matariyyah and Port Said. Sadly, the project eventually fell through.

The company obtained a large stretch of land to the northeast of Cairo. In 1907, the region became the new town of Heliopolis.

Architecture: The Heliopolis Style

The city was so unique that it had an architectural style named Heliopolis. It was also a trailblazer in terms of including all modern conveniences. It was equipped with water, drains, electricity, hotel facilities, a golf course, a racetrack and a park. Furthermore, the area also contained terraced villas, apartment buildings, and workers’ bungalows.

Cultural Melting Pot

In addition to its architectural splendour, Heliopolis is celebrated for its vibrant cultural scene and cosmopolitan atmosphere. Over the years, the neighbourhood has attracted diverse residents, from Egyptian professionals and expatriates to artists and intellectuals.

Strolling along the leafy boulevards of Heliopolis, one encounters a melting pot of cultures, reflected in the eclectic mix of restaurants, cafes, and shops that line the streets. Whether savouring authentic Egyptian cuisine at a local eatery or browsing the boutiques for handmade crafts, visitors are immersed in a tapestry of sights, sounds, and flavours.

The Man Behind the City

Baron Empain (1852 – 1929) was a wealthy Belgian engineer, entrepreneur, financier, industrialist, and Egyptologist. Baron Empain began his career when he became involved in railway construction in Belgium.

Afterwards, he expanded his work to France. In 1881, he established his bank, Banque Empain, which later became the Belgian Industrial Bank. His group of companies continued to expand and do business in Russia, China, the Belgian Congo, and Egypt.

Baron Empain arrived in Egypt in 1904 to oversee the construction of a railway line linking Mansourah to Matariya. After that, he continued his stay in Egypt and established the Cairo Electric Railways and Heliopolis Oases Company. The company managed to buy 25 km2 of land to the northeast of Cairo at a low price from the government, where the city was erected.

Baron Empain’s Palace: A Heliopolis Landmark

Heliopolis: Everything You Need to Know about the City of the Sun
Baron Empain Palace, located in the Heliopolis district

Baron Empain chose Alexander Marcel, a French architect, to build his Hindu-style palace residence between 1907 and 1910. The Palace has now become a well-known landmark of Heliopolis and is visited by many.

The neighbourhood was also home to some of the wealthiest Egyptian residences. To the left of the Palace lies the Arabesque palace of Boghos and Marie Nubar Pasha. Opposite the Palace, you’ll find the former residence of Sultan Hussein Kamel.

Modern Times

From its inception, Heliopolis was home to the upper class of Egyptian citizens. After the 1952 Revolution, it became occupied by wealthy and educated middle-class citizens. As the Egyptian capital grew and expanded, Heliopolis no longer remained outside the city as an isolated suburb. It is now entirely integrated within the borders of the city.

Another landmark is the Catholic Basilica church on Al-Ahram Street, where Baron Empain is buried. The area is quite religiously diverse, including Islamic mosques, the Saint-Rita church, and the Jewish Al Missalah Street synagogue.

The district was never short of places for entertainment as well. Heliopolis Club, alongside El Shams Club, remains one of Egypt’s most well-known sporting clubs. It was established in 1905. It also has no shortage of modern cafes and restaurants, such as Harris, Starbucks, Cilantro, Costa Coffee, and Beanos, in addition to cinemas and major shopping malls.

Heliopolis also features some of the most luxurious hotels in Cairo, such as Fairmont Towers, Le Méridien, Novotel Cairo Airport, Sonesta Hotel and Casino, InterContinental Cairo Citystars, Holiday Inn Cairo Citystars, and The Baron Hotel.

Moreover, the importance of the district of Heliopolis lies in the fact that it houses many military headquarters. The Egyptian Military headquarters and the Egyptian Air Force headquarters are located there.

The regional headquarters for the World Health Organisation and the Red Crescent are also in Heliopolis. The Egyptian Republican Palace and the president’s office are also in the district.

Attractions Near Heliopolis

Beyond the ancient marvel of Heliopolis itself, the surrounding area of Cairo boasts many attractions that offer visitors a diverse range of experiences. From historical sites to vibrant markets and modern cultural landmarks, there is something for everyone to enjoy. Here are just a few notable attractions near Heliopolis:

  1. The Egyptian Museum: Located in the heart of Cairo, the Egyptian Museum is a treasure trove of ancient artefacts, including the world-famous collection of Tutankhamun’s tomb treasures. Visitors can explore thousands of years of Egyptian history through mummies, statues, jewellery, and other relics.
  2. Khan El Khalili Bazaar: Dive into the bustling atmosphere of Cairo’s oldest and most famous bazaar. Khan El Khalili is a maze of narrow alleyways with shops selling everything from spices and textiles to souvenirs and traditional handicrafts. It’s the perfect place to immerse yourself in Egyptian culture’s sights, sounds, and smells.
  3. Islamic Cairo: Step back in time as you wander through the winding streets of Islamic Cairo, home to some of the city’s most beautiful mosques, madrasas, and palaces. Highlights include the Sultan Hassan Mosque, Al-Azhar Mosque, and the medieval gates of Bab Zuweila.
  4. Saladin Citadel and Mohamed Ali Mosque: Perched on a hill overlooking Cairo, the Saladin Citadel is a sprawling fortress that offers panoramic views of the city below. Within its walls lies the stunning Mohamed Ali Mosque, also known as the Alabaster Mosque, with its distinctive domes and minarets.
  5. Coptic Cairo: Explore the rich history of Egypt’s Christian community in Coptic Cairo, where ancient churches, monasteries, and synagogues abound. Highlights include the Hanging Church, Saint Sergius and Bacchus Church, and the Coptic Museum.
  6. Al-Azhar Park: Escape the hustle and bustle of the city with a visit to Al-Azhar Park, a lush oasis in the heart of Cairo. Spanning over 80 acres, the park offers beautifully landscaped gardens, scenic views, and a peaceful respite from the chaos of urban life.
  7. Nile River Cruises: Experience the magic of the Nile with a leisurely cruise along its storied waters. Whether it’s a sunset dinner cruise or a multi-day journey to Luxor and Aswan, a Nile cruise is a must-do activity for any visitor to Egypt.
  8. The Cairo Tower: Get a bird’s-eye view of the city from the top of the Cairo Tower, one of Cairo’s most iconic landmarks. Rising 187 meters above the city skyline, the tower offers panoramic vistas of Cairo and the surrounding desert.

These are just a few of the many attractions awaiting visitors near Heliopolis. Whether you’re a history buff, a culture vulture, or simply looking to soak up the sights and sounds of Cairo, you’re sure to find something to pique your interest in this vibrant and dynamic city.


In the heart of Cairo, amidst the hustle and bustle of urban life, lies a window into the ancient past: Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. From its humble origins as a religious center to its role as a beacon of learning and innovation, Heliopolis has left an indelible mark on the annals of history.

Through its archaeological remains and cultural legacy, Heliopolis continues to captivate the imagination of all who visit, offering a glimpse into the splendor of ancient Egypt and the enduring quest for knowledge and enlightenment. As we stand amidst the ruins of this ancient city, we are reminded of the timeless beauty and majesty of the human spirit, reaching across the ages to touch our hearts and minds.

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